旁观者效应

What is the bystander effect

 

Republishing Authorized by Scientific American

《科学美国人》授权发布

Translated by Wisdom and Compassion Translation Center

智悲翻译中心翻译

 

1

你是否想过,为什么在人群中

ever wonder why even in a crowd

 

2

当有人受了欺负,似乎没有人愿意挺身而出

no one seems to step in when someone is bullied

 

3

似乎也没有人去帮助身体出现不适的人

Or help someone that is feeling unwell

 

4

答案是:旁观者效应

the answer is the bystander effect

 

5

旁观者效应是一种奇怪的心理现象

The bystander effect is a strange psychological phenomenon

 

6

事发周围的人越多

the more people there are around

 

7

旁观者介入紧急情况的可能性就越小

the less likely bystanders are to intervene in an emergency situation

 

8

有一种解释说,众多的旁观者导致责任分散效应

one explanation is that the diffusion of responsibility among multiple bystanders

 

10

会使每个旁观者认为其他人会站出来采取行动

leads each person to believe someone else will stand forward and take action

 

12

如果旁观者认为其他人更有能力,则会使责任分散效应更为增强

the effect is likely also bolstered by bystanders assuming other people

 

14

例如认为医生或者警察等人更有资格提供帮助

such as doctors or police officers are more qualified to help

 

15

这种效应使得旁观者害怕受到伤害,或者担心自己的介入是多余的

fearing harm and worrying their intervention will be unneeded or unwanted

 

17

单独的旁观者比成群的旁观者更有可能注意到受害者

Lone bystanders are more likely to notice a victim than bystanders in groups

 

18

这是因为当人们聚在一起时

this is because when people are together

 

19

社会规范决定了我们更关注彼此

social norms dictate that we focus on each other

 

20

而对周围事物的注意力则会减弱

and pay less attention to our surroundings

 

21

一旦旁观者确实注意到了受害者

once a bystander does notice the victim

 

22

他们也会去观察周围人对此事的态度

they might look at other people nearby to interpret the situation

 

23

如果没有人做出反应

if no one else is reacting

 

24

旁观者也会照样什么也不做

the bystander might conform and do nothing

 

25

旁观者也许会认为

there may be a assumption

 

26

其他的旁观者更有能力处理状况

that the other bystanders have more knowledge about the given situation

 

27

并且认为其他人正在采取恰当的行动

and are behaving appropriately

 

28

如果旁观者认为情况确实紧急

if the bystander does deem the situation in emergency

 

29

并且觉得应该有人采取行动

and think someone should do something

 

30

那么旁观者就不得不审视一下他们的个人责任

they then have to contemplate their personal responsibility

 

31

如此,他们的责任感和同情心也许会增强

feelings of obligation and empathy could be increased

 

32

如果旁观者有过医疗或者自我防卫的训练

if the bystander has medical or self-defense training

 

33

如果他们认识受害者

if they know the victim

 

34

并且认为受害者应该得到帮助

and if they believe the victim deserves help

 

35

那实际上他们最终会决定提供帮助

the final step is actually deciding to help

 

36

要么直接参与救助,要么联系相关部门

either by intervening directly or contacting the authorities

 

37

这样一来,旁观者效应最终就被克服了

finally the bystander effect has been overcome

 

38

然而最近的一份研究表明

however a recent study suggests

 

39

在职场中,旁观者效应会阻碍下级的想法、顾虑和意见

the bystander effect can prevent ideas,concerns and opinions

 

40

from reaching upper management in the workplace

传达到上级管理层

 

41

如果一个员工确信某个信息已经广为人知

if an employee is confident that information is widely known

 

42

And discussed among other employees

并且已在其他员工中引起议论

 

43

这样,由于责任的分散

A diffusion of responsibility lowers the chance

 

44

使得他们将信息上报给管理者的可能性会降低

that they will tell their manager the information

 

45

研究者将这种现象称作“声音旁观者效应”

researchers call this The Voice Bystander Effect

 

46

这里是科学美国人

From Scientific American

 

47

我是蒂姆•帕尔米耶里

I'm Tim Palmieri

 

智悲翻译中心

译制人员

翻译:古霖

校对:阿鲁斯 净馨

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制作:Anita